to Hard Water
Water is commonly
classified as hard or soft depending on the type and amount of
naturally occurring minerals and salts dissolved in it. The mineral
content usually comprises the metal ions of calcium and magnesium
(yes these are both metals!) in the form of their carbonates,
calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate but may include several
other metals as well as sulphates and bicarbonates. When water
has a relatively high content of dissolved minerals (solids) it
is described as hard, whereas soft water has a low dissolved content.
Two common types of hardness in water are temporary hardness and
permanent hardness: Temporary Hardness
The Temporary hardness of water can be eradicated the addition
of lime (calcium hydroxide) or by boiling. It occurs because of
dissolved calcium bicarbonate in the water. Calcium carbonate
will not dissolve as easily in hot water as it does in cold water;
As a result, boiling (which engenders carbonate) precipitates
calcium carbonate from the solution, leaving a water that is less
hard. This is what gives your kettle that lime scale coating!Permanent
It is impossible
to remove the permanent hardness of water by boiling. It occurs
because of the concentration of calcium and magnesium sulphates
and/or chlorides in the water. These become more soluble when
there is a rise in temperature Degree of Measure.
The hardness of
water is measured as milligrams per litre of calcium carbonate,
e.g. 200mg/litre CaCO 3. Milligrams per litre is the same as parts
per million (ppm). You may also see hardness expressed as mg/litre
of calcium. These can be converted into mg/litre of CaCO3 by multiplying
the reading by 2.5.
the problem of hard water and limescale.
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| What Makes Water Hard? | Hard
Water Regions in the UK | Is Hard Water
Bad For You? | How You Can Know If You
Have Hard Water
Limescale | Effects
of Limescale | Effects of Hard Water
| Various Methods Of Water Treatment | A
Quick Guide to Common Water Treatment Devices | Benefits
of a Limescale-Free House